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1.  Review Article
Platelet rich fibrin: New treatment modality in Grade II furcation defects
Dhruv Mehta, Neeraj Deshpande, Deepak Dave, Bhavesh Modi, Ashit Bharwani
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 2533

ABSTRACT

Plateletrich rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous healing biomaterial, which incorporates a matrix of autologous fibrin, leukocytes, platelets and growth factors, harvested from a simple blood sample. Various growth factors present in PRF are well-known source of cytokines, usable for clinical applications. Grade II furcation lesion is essentially a cul-de-sac with a definite horizontal component and involvement of the interradicular bone without a through-and-through ability to probe. Furcation defects represent a formidable problem in the treatment of periodontal disease, which is related to the complex and irregular anatomy of furcation. The early Grade II furcation requires surgical management. Surgery permits access for root debridement, odontoplasty, osseous recontouring, and periodontal regeneration. Regeneration of the previously destroyed periodontal attachment tissues is biologically possible, and the regeneration has become the goal of therapy since the 1990s. Regenerative attempts such as bone grafts, guided tissue regeneration, application of growth factors, and enamel matrix derivatives are currently used for periodontal regeneration in the treatment of Grade II furcation involvements which under favorable conditions, can induce roughly 60-70% regeneration of the bone lesion’s height or volume, with concomitant improvement in the clinical conditions. This review will help in understanding regenerative property of PRF in furcation defects.

Keywords Grade II furcation, periodontal regeneration, platelet concentrate, plateletrich fibrin

How to cite this article: Mehta D, Deshpande N, Dave D, Modi B, Bharwani A. Platelet rich fibrin: New treatment modality in Grade II furcation defects. J Oral Dis Market 2016;1:1-5.

 
2.  Review Article
Human herpes virus: Bacteria and periodontium
Akta Sanghavi, Deepak Dave, Prasad Nadig, Tulsi Sanghavi, Nirali Khanpara
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1989

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex aetiopathogenesis. It is associated with the biofilm, which has primary role in the development of periodontitis and has a slow to rapid destruction may be observed. Many different factors have been involved in the initiation of periodontitis, including gene polymorphism, bacterial, immunological and environmental causes. Recently, in periodontitis patients viruses were detected. Studies reported high count of Epstein–Barr virus, human herpes simplex-1 and Human cytomegalovirus in aggressive and chronic periodontitis, it is unlikely that these herepes viruses are acting merely as innocuous bystanders in periodontal disease. These human Herpes viruses cooperate with specific bacteria in periodontal tissue breakdown so they probably not stand-alone periodontopathic agents. This coinfection of periodontopathic bacteria and active human herpes viruses may constitute a major cause of progression of destructive periodontitis and explain a number of the clinical characteristics of the disease. In this review we discuss the human herpes viruses, their effect on periodontium, interaction with bacteria, various diagnostic method and therapeutic implication.

Keywords Human herpes viruse, bacteria, periodontitis, Epstein–Barr virus, human cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus

How to cite this article: Sanghavi A, Dave D, Nadig P, Sanghavi T, Khanpara N. Human herpes virus: Bacteria and periodontium. J Oral Dis Markers 2016;1:1-5.

 
3.  Review Article
Dentistry for the critical care patients
Bishnupati Singh, T K Giri, Brajbhushan Mall, M D Chethan, Vallabh Mahadevan, Namrata Sinha
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1586

ABSTRACT

Oropharyngeal colonization and later translocation will lead to nosocomial pneumonia and other secondary infections. Oral care for the critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU) demands meticulous maintenance due to the evidence suggestive of secondary systemic infections in the individuals. In the absence of definitive guidelines, and adequate knowledge on the part of nurses imparting oral care to these patients leads to the prevalence of hospital acquired infection and at times mortality. The use of toothbrushes over swabs and use of chlorhexidine mouth rinses helps in reducing the count of microbes. A review of the available literature and compilation of guidelines for delivering oral care after the assessment of dental health will reduce the prevalence of these infections in the ICU.

Keywords Denture care, oral health assessment, oropharyngeal colonization, pediatric care

How to cite this article: Singh B, Giri TK, Mall B, Chethan MD, Mahadevan V, Sinha N. Dentistry for the critical care patients. J Oral Dis Markers 2016;1:1-5.

 
4.  Case Report
Prophylactic optic nerve decompression in pediatric craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: To do or not to do?
R Keerthi, Tulasi Nayak
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 537

ABSTRACT

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a pathological condition in which normal bone is replaced by abnormal fibro-connective tissue. Although characterized as a benign condition, it can be large and invasive, causing considerable disfigurement and dysfunction. When faced with such a destructive process in a child, the obvious questions raised are what to do about it and when. We present here a case of craniofacial FD in an 11-year-old boy, in whom the growth in the right orbit had caused swelling, epiphora, proptosis, and pain. The patient was treated with prophylactic optic nerve decompression with excellent results. While deteriorating vision is a definitive indication for optic nerve decompression, the need for a prophylactic treatment is a controversial one. The rate of irreparable loss of vision is well-documented, and the resulting morbidity is one which must be considered in children. We have singularized this case of prophylactic optic nerve to review the various clinical and treatment aspects of craniofacial FD and to specifically debate the viability of prophylactic optic nerve decompression in pediatric craniofacial FD.

Keywords Craniofacial, decompression, optic nerve, pediatric fibrous dysplasia, prophylactic

How to cite this article: Keerthi R, Nayak T. Prophylactic optic nerve decompression in pediatric craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: To do or not to do? J Oral Dis Markers 2016;1:1-6.

 
5.  CASE REPORT
Submandibular sialolith – a case report
Lakshmi Shetty, Nilesh Khandelwal, Trivina Domah, Deepika Seshagiri, Priti Talele, Uday Londhe
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 24

ABSTRACT

Sialolith is relatively common (80%) in the submandibular salivary gland due to the viscous nature of its mucinous secretions, high calcium content, and its tortuous ducts. In the present case, the patient presented with a history of swelling below the tongue for the past 12 years. The diagnosis of submandibular sialolith was made through clinical examination and intraoral occlusal radiograph. The present manuscript briefs on the treatment protocol employed in the present case and summarize the various therapeutic modalities available for sialolith.

Keywords: Calculi, submandibular gland, sialolith

How to cite this article: Shetty L, Khandelwal N, Domah T, Seshagiri D, Talele P, Londhe U. Submandibular sialolith – A case report. J Oral Dis Markers 2019;3:1-3.

Received: 04 February 2019;

Accepted: 18 March 2019

 
6.  Review Article
Odontoma - A brief overview
Deepali Patekar, Supriya Kheur, Archana A. Gupta
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 304

ABSTRACT

Odontoma is primarily diagnosed in children and adolescents with no gender predilection. It has been reported to be the most common of all odontogenic neoplasms and tumorlike lesions. Although the odontoma’s etiology remains unknown, patients have often reported a history of trauma and infection. In most cases, odontomas are asymptomatic characterized by a relatively slow growth and rarely exceeding the size of a tooth. In rare cases, odontomas exceed their usual dimensions resulting in the expansion of the cortical bone. Although odontomas may be diagnosed during any age, they are most frequently reported before the second decade of life. The present review summarizes the major clinicopathological characteristics and molecular pathogenesis of odontoma.

Keywords: Hamartomatous malformations, odontoma compound and complex, odontogenic tumor

How to cite this article: Patekar D, Kheur S, Gupta AA. Odontoma - A brief overview. J Oral Dis Markers 2018;2:23-25.

Received: 03 October 2018;

Accepted: 05 November 2018

 
7.  Review Article
Clinical presentation of head and neck lymphadenopathy: A brief overview
A. Thirumal Raj, Shankargouda Patil, Roopa S. Rao, Kamran H. Awan
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 189

ABSTRACT

Head and neck lymphadenopathy may represent a localized infection or a tumor or may be part of a systemic disease. A thorough knowledge of the varied clinical presentation exhibited by the lymph nodes under physiological and pathological states is vital in arriving at a provisional diagnosis. Despite the availability of advanced diagnostic aids, a precise clinical examination remains to be the most ideal tool for assessing head and neck lymph nodes. The present manuscript summarizes the varied clinical presentations of head and neck lymphadenopathy.

Keywords: Head and neck, lymphadenopathy, clinical presentation

How to cite this article: Raj AT, Patil S, Rao RS, Awan KH. Clinical presentation of head and neck lymphadenopathy: A brief overview. J Oral Dis Markers 2018;2:26-28.

Received: 11 September 2018;

Accepted: 19 October 2018

 
8.  Original Article
Evaluation of relationship between duration of lactation and tooth loss in postmenopausal women in a South Indian population - A cross-sectional survey
Shanmugapriya Ramamurthy, Rathinasamy Kadiresan, Arunmozhi Ulaganathan, Sabitha Sudarsan, Sujatha Govindarajan, Anugraha Thankam
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 149

ABSTRACT

Background: Osteoporosis and periodontitis are chronic diseases characterized by bone loss. Both these conditions consist of multifactorial etiology and risk factors. Changes in bone metabolism are often reported during lactation, yet their effect on dental health is relatively unexplored. Thus, it is essential to investigate the association between breastfeeding and oral health changes.

Aim: The objective of our study is to assess the relationship between the period of breastfeeding and the total number of teeth present in postmenopausal women in a South Indian population.

Settings and Design: The current study was a cross-sectional survey of 500 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 61.7 years. They were interviewed to collect details on the duration of lactation, other reproductive factors and examined for the total number of natural teeth present.

Materials and Methods: The collected data were classified into three groups with respect to the duration of breastfeeding as Group I - 24–36 months, Group II - 37–60 months, and Group III - >60 months. Student’s t-test was done to compare the means. One-way analysis of variance was done to analyze the association followed by Tukey post hoc test.

Results: The group having the longest lactation period Group III (>60 months) had the lowest number of natural teeth (13.04 ± 6.026). The total number of the teeth was significantly greater in Group I compared to Group II (mean =7.065) and Group III (mean =8.731). Group II and Group III did not show a significant difference (mean =3.409).

Conclusions: Women with a longer duration of breastfeeding presented with significantly less number of teeth. The changes in bone metabolism brought about by longer periods of breastfeeding might increase the susceptibility of those patients to periodontal bone loss and subsequently lead to tooth loss in postmenopausal women.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, lactation, osteoporosis, periodontal pocket, postmenopause, tooth loss.

How to cite this article: Ramamurthy S, Kadiresan R, Ulaganathan A, Sudarsan S, Govindarajan S, Thankam A. Evaluation of relationship between duration of lactation and tooth loss in postmenopausal women in a South Indian population - A cross-sectional survey. J Oral Dis Markers 2018;8-12.

Received: 18 February 2018;

Accepted: 02 September 2018

 
9.  Case Report
Psychological/psychosocial stress and periodontal diseases: An intricate web
Ghaziya Ghansh, R. Shanmuga Priya, Sabitha Sudarsan, Manikandan Krishnan
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 145

ABSTRACT

Currently, several clinical studies have documented a positive relationship between psychological/psychosocial stress and chronic periodontal disease. Stress in the least form has known to impact periodontal health through changes in the individual behavior and loaded with the potential to affect the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Although a direct association remains to be proven, recent studies indicate that psychological/psychosocial stress definitely possesses as a potential risk indicator for periodontal disease and, hence, should be addressed as and when the situation demands. This article seeks to highlight the subtle link between the above-stated risk factors and periodontal disease by quoting an instance of compromised oral maintenance leading to premature tooth loss.

Keywords: Fear, oral health, periodontium, psychotic disorder, stress

How to cite this article: Ghansh G, Priya RS, Sudarsan S, Krishnan M. Psychological/psychosocial stress and periodontal diseases: An intricate web. J Oral Dis Markers 2018;5-7.

Received: 08 March 2018;

Accepted: 19 July 2018

 
10.  Original Article
Incidence of the oral protozoa - Entamoeba gingivalis in a hospital-based population in South India - A preliminary study
Shanmugapriya Ramamurthy, Sabitha Sudarsana, Shyam Sivasamy, Arunmozhi Ulaganathan, Kadhiresan Rathinasamy, Sujatha Govindarajan
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 144

ABSTRACT

Background: Protozoa are single-cell animal organisms that can divide within a host organism. The oral protozoan Entamoeba gingivalis has held a rather chequered position in the history of research. Keyes in 1983 noted that this organism together with the cocci which colonize the surface of the actinomyces filaments was invariably found in close proximity to plaque, especially in patients with poor oral hygiene.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of the oral protozoan E. gingivalis in a hospital-based population (attending the outpatient clinic) in a dental institution in South India.

Materials and Methods: The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the prevalence of E. gingivalis in periodontal diseases and to compare its occurrence among gingivitis and periodontitis group and with healthy controls. It is a cross-sectional comparative clinico-microbiological study. Criteria-based sampling was undertaken among patients visiting a dental college in South India. The plaque sample was collected with a sterile curette (Gracey Curette) from the gingival crevice/periodontal pocket and immediately subjected to light microscopic examination by an original wet-smear technique for the presence of E. gingivalis.

Results: The results revealed that while 88% of gingivitis patients showed the presence of E. gingivalis, 76% of periodontitis patients and only 4% of healthy subjects showed its presence.

Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study showed an increased presence of E. gingivalis in plaque samples of both gingivitis and periodontitis patients when compared to healthy subjects. The incidence of the parasite, as well as the intensity of the gingival infection, is correlated.

Keywords: Commensal, Entamoeba gingivalis, gingivitis, microbiome, periodontitis, protozoa

How to cite this article: Ramamurthy S, Sudarsana S, Sivasamy S, Ulaganathan A, Rathinasamy K, Govindarajan S. Incidence of the oral protozoa - Entamoeba gingivalis in a hospital-based population in South India - A preliminary study. J Oral Dis Markers 2018;1-4.

Received: 08 March 2018;

Accepted: 06 July 2018

 
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